Fomenko claims the Hagia Sophia is actually the biblical Temple of Solomon.
He identifies Solomon as sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1494–1566).
The concept is most fully explained in History: Fiction or Science? The New Chronology also contains a reconstruction, an alternative chronology, radically shorter than the standard historical timeline, because all ancient history is "folded" onto the Middle Ages.
According to Fomenko's claims, the written history of humankind goes only as far back as AD 800, there is almost no information about events between AD 800–1000, and most known historical events took place in AD 1000–1500.
On the other hand, according to Fomenko the word "Rome" is a placeholder and can signify any one of several different cities and kingdoms.
He claims the "First Rome" or "Ancient Rome" or "Mizraim" is an ancient Egyptian kingdom in the delta of the Nile with its capital in Alexandria.
The historical Jesus is a composite figure and reflection of the Old-Testament prophet Elisha (850–800 BC? –1085), Saint Basil of Caesarea (330–379), and even Li Yuanhao (also known as Emperor Jingzong or "Son of Heaven" - emperor of Western Xia, who reigned in 1032–48), Euclides, Bacchus and Dionysius.
The third "Rome" is constituted by three different cities: Constantinople (again), Rome in Italy, and Moscow.
Central to Fomenko's New Chronology is his claim of the existence of a vast Slav-Turk empire, which he called the "Russian Horde", which he says played the dominant role in Eurasian history before the 17th century.
The various peoples identified in ancient and medieval history, from the Scythians, Huns, Goths and Bulgars, through the Polyane, Duleby, Drevliane, Pechenegs, to in more recent times, the Cossacks, Ukrainians, and Belarusians, are nothing but elements of the single Russian Horde.
In 1685 he published a version of Pliny the Elder's Natural History in which he claimed that most Greek and Roman texts had been forged by Benedictine monks.
When later questioned on these results, Hardouin stated that he would reveal the monks' reasons in a letter to be revealed only after his death.
Especially the history of their birth and of their early years is furnished with phantastic traits; the amazing similarity, nay literal identity, of those tales, even if they refer to different, completely independent peoples, sometimes geographically far removed from one another, is well known and has struck many an investigator.